A Polish Academic Information Center Exhibit         
Warsaw: Life and Death in the Ghetto which the Germans established there during WWII

"A white bearded old man passed through the control on the way back from the city. The guard studied that old man's pass with torturous deliberation to make his victim uncertain and afraid. Meanwhile, the old man stood there, hat in hand, as regulations required, and waited, trembling for the usual kick. Then the guard started to look through his pockets and found part of a loaf of bread. 'This is forbidden, you have stolen this bread' he barked. The old man said he was hungry and someone had given him the bread. 'That's an outrageous lie' shouted the guard and hit him on the side of the face so he staggered. Soldiers standing around gave encouragement. With blows and kicks, the guard drove the old man into the sentry box, there was a sickening thud, the old may lay unconscious in the sentry box. Blood was coming from his mouth and nose and staining his white beard."

diary entry, Joe J. Hedecker, a German soldier
August 1941


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