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>Poland's History - The Noble's Republic (1572-1795)

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Source Size Link and Content Year
From: Neal Pease's 1994 Historical Setting a part of the Library of Congress A Country Study: Poland Part 3
2,135 words
The Noble Republic (1572-1795) - The Elective Monarchy; The Deluge, 1648-67; First Partition; National Revival; The Second Partition; The Third Partition and the Destruction of Poland-Lithuania. Excellent historical maps.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Excerpts from the 1987 book The Polish Way by Adam Zamojski Part 6
2,410 words
First election of kings; Poland's fortunes under Batory and the Vasas - The short lived reign of Henri de Valois, that of the able general Batory and the religious fanatic Zygmunt Vasa. Emergence of a a magnate class under Wladyslaw Waza, Problems in the Ukraine; Cossack, Muscovite and Swedish invasions.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 7
2,770 words
Anatomy of decay. Reign of anarchy - Effect of Swedish wars on the economy; government's stalemate; August II military adventure, "election" of Leszczynski to the occupied throne, his exit to France, August III ascendence to the throne, loss of will and ability to conduct a policy, Poland as the Sick Man of Europe.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 8
2,410 words
The last king. The partition of the country - Educational reform, election of an enlightened ruler, a new era checkmated by Russian armed presence and institnance on "the five principles;" these resisted by force of a Confederation formed at Bar. The first Partition as a response. The Commission for National Education spurring a second Renaissance. The writing and passage of Poland's and Europe's first Constitution. A Russian invasion and the second Partition as a response. Kosciusko's rising, its collapse and the third Partition.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From: A Brief History of Poland, a 1994 posting by the AngloPol Corporation Part 7
1,470 words
End of Expansion - Crisis of the System - The long rule of Sigismund III; War with Russia; Polish Army in Moscow; Chmielnicki and the Cossack mutiny; Swedish invasion; The defense of Czestochowa's monastary; King John III Sobieski and wars with Turkey; The introduction of the liberum veto; Founding of the Eastern Rite of the Catholic Church (Uniate).
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 8
1,285 words
Attempts at Reform - Enlightenment & Fall of the State - Konarski and the Collegium Nobilium; The Knights School; Catherine II of Russia as guarantor of 'Cardinal Rights" the Confederation of Bar; The First Partition; The Commission for National Education; Constitution of May 3, 1791, War with Russia, 2nd partition, Kosciuszko's Uprising, 3rd partition.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From the 1998 Constitutions, Elections and Legislatures of Poland lecture notes by Jacek Jędruch's Chapters 2
12,865 words
Monarchy Becomes the First Republic: Kings Elected for Life - Seyms Claim King-making Powers; Pacta Conventa and the Rokosz, or Legalized Rebellion; Cities Elect Representatives "Civitatum Nuntii;" Peripatetic Seym and the Places Where it Met; The Senate as "Guardians of the Law;" Political Personalities in the Seyms of the Early First Republic.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From the The Loss of Sovereignty: 1795 section of Poland in the Classroom 2,785 words What Led to Poland's Demise in 1795 - A consideration of historical roots of the events leading to Poland's loss of sovereignty: The Bar Confederacy, the Role of the Sejm, the Role of the Gentry, the Role of the King, the Role of Geography, the Role of the Constitution, the Effect on the Nation.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From: Nationalism and Communism in East Central Europe lecture notes by Prof. A. Cienciala, Univ. of Kansas Chapters
3 and 4
7,400 words
The Decline of Poland - A critical review of the commonly professed, (elected monarchy, magnates' greed, liberum veto, serfdom) and real reasons (low crown revenues, absolutist neighbors) for Poland's decline. Wars with Russia, Cossack Wars, Swedish Wars, Turkish Wars, Saxon Kings, Reform Projects and their Failure. The First Partition, Era of Revival and Reform, Constitution of May 3, 1791, Second Partition, Kosciuszko Uprising & Third Partition.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From the 1917 Political History of Poland by E.H. Lewinski-Corwin Chapter 10
4,305 words
The Catholic Reaction - The Reforms of Stefan Batory; The Bigotry of Zygmunt Vasa; The Growth of Jesuit Influence; The Rebellion Against the King; The Echoes of the Thirty Years' War; The Uniate Church
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Chapter 11
6,230 words
The Polish Constitution - The chapter discusses the laws governing Poland prior to the enactment of the Constitution of 1791: The Polish Republic; The King; The Elections; The Powers and the Duties of the King; Offices The Diet; Confederacies; Administrative of Justice; Finances; National Defense; Legal Status of the Various Classes of the Population.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Chapter 12
4,975 words
The Cossack Wars - Political and Economic Conditions of the Country in the First Half of the 18th Century; The Entanglements of Foreign Policy; Conditions on the Ukrainian Frontier; Chmielnicki's Rebellion 1648; The Further Cossack Wars
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Chapter 13
6,135 words
The Passing of Poland's Position as a Great Power - War with Sweden; The Uprising of the People; Swedish Alliance and the Polish League; The Peace of Oliva; Growth of Religious Fanaticism; War with Muscovy; Lubomirski Rebellion; Truce of Andrushov; Abdication of John Kazimir; Turkish War and Treaty of Buczacz; Golomb Confederacy; Victory at Chocim; Peace of Zoravno; Battle of Vienna; Holy League against Turkey.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Chapter 14
7,500 words
The Disintegration of Political Sovereignty - Election of August of Saxony; The Northern War; Leszczynski and Civil War; Abdication by August II; Battle of Poltava; The Withdrawal of Leszcynki; Russian Intervention; The Civil War; First Dumb Diet; August's Death 1733;The Interregnum; Dzikow Confederacy; August III; The Intellectual and Political Awakening; Reform Parties; Radom Confederacy; The Second Dumb Diet; Bar Confederacy
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
1914 History of Austro-Hungary by Steed. Phillips and Hannay published in London: The Encyclopedia Britannica Company, Ltd. Part 25
2,875 words
The Cossacks - Tartar problems in the borderlands; The semiautonomous Cossacks, Their alligence to Poland, Jesuit efforts to undermine the Orthodox Church; Uniate Church established; Wladislaus failed plans of War with Turkey, the Chmielnicki Cossack Ribellion, invasion by Muscovites, by Sweden, the defence of the monastery of Czenstochowa; the peace of Oliva
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 26
4,800 words
Russian Ascendancy - The Catholic reaction; An extraordinary religious revival; Influence of the Bourbon and Habsburg on Polish magnates; The liberum veto; Role of money and form armies in contested Royal elections; The Czartoryscy, the Radziwills, the Potoccy magnate clans, Russian interference, Confederation of Bar; The 1st Partition..
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From a 2000 History of Poland posted by the Polish Embassy in Ljubljana Part 3
1,765 words
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - Union of Lublin, Creation of Polish-lithuanian Commonwealth; Electing the King; Wars with Russia, Sweden and Ottoman Empire; Relief of Vienna; The First Partition.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
From the 1997 The History of Poland posting by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk Chapter 1
2,225 words
The Rise To Power - Slav Origins: Foundation: 966-1138; Disintegration and Reunification: 1138 - 1370; The Jagiellonians, 1386-1572. Rise to Greatness; The Elected Monarchy.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 2
920 words
The Polish Army (1550-1683) - Mobility, adaptability and self-sufficiency; light cavalry supported by artillery; heavy cavalry and the Husaria, the winged cavalry whose front rank carried lance 20 feet long; delivering the decisive blow.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Part 3
1,325 words
Decline and Partition - The Reign of Anarchy; The Decline of Poland;The Partitions of Poland: 1772 - 1795.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
The reign of the Vasa dynasty (1587-1668)
1,215 words The page provides an introduction to the period and details the events of the Swedish invasion of 1655-1660, the so called "Potop" or Deluge.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
The Vasa Capsizes
2 segments
1,085 words
The title recalls an event in the later phases of the Swedish-Polish Wars of 1600-1611 and 1617-1629. The webpage presents the conflict from Swedish point of view (read the segments The Situation and About The King)
Russian Influence in Poland-Lithuania: 1768-1788
1,480 words Primarily an account of the years of the Bar Confederation and its armed struggle with the Russians and its aftermath.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Food and Drink of Eastern Europe
5,850 words An overview, primarily peertaining to Poland and Rus, of the raw ingredients, methods of preservation and preparation of food and drink in the period up to 1650.
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
   Biographical links
    Leaders: civil, military, etc.     Others: artists, scientists, etc.
Jan Kochanowski (1530 - 1584), Renaissance Poet
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Stefan Batory (1533 - 1586), King of Poland
Jan Karol Chodkiewicz (1560 - 1621), Outstanding Commander
Krzysztof Arciszewski (1592 - 1656), Polish soldier, Engineer, and Ethnographer
Jan Heweliusz (1611 - 1687), Astronomer
Jan III Sobieski (1629 - 1696), King of Poland
Maria Karolina Katarzyna Leszczyńska (1703 - 1768), French Consort, Polish Princess
Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski (1732 - 1798), King and Reformer
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Kazimierz Pułaski (1745 - 1779), Famous Cavalry General, "Father of American Cavalry"
Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746 - 1817), Hero and General
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (1755 - 1818), General and Exile Leader
Józef Poniatowski (1763 - 1813), Patriot, Statesman, General
Maria Walewska (1786 - 1817), Noblewoman and Mistress of Napoleon Bonaparte
   Event links
Battle of Kircholm (1605)
  1600 1650 1700 1750  
Battle of Vienna (1683)
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