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>The Period of Partitions (1772-1918)

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From: Nationalism and Communism in East Central Europe lecture notes by Prof. A. Cienciala, Univ. of Kansas Chapters
3 and 4
7,400 words
The Decline and Partitions of Poland - Professed (elected monarchy, magnates' greed, liberum veto, serfdom) and real reasons (low crown revenues, absolutist neighbors) for Poland's decline. Wars with Russia, Cossack Wars, Swedish Wars, Turkish Wars, Saxon Kings (1697-1763), Reform Projects and their Failure. The First Partition (1772), Era of Revival and Reform (1772-1793), Constitution of May 3, 1791, Second Partition (1793), Kosciuszko Uprising (1794) & Third Partition (1795-97).
From: Neal Pease's 1994 Historical Setting a part of the Library of Congress A Country Study: Poland Part 3
2,120 words
The Noble Republic, 1572-1795 - Decay of the Commonwealth; The Three Partitions, 1764-95; First Partition; National Revival; Destruction of Poland-Lithuania .
Part 4
2,200 words
Partitioned Poland - The Napoleonic Period The Impact of Nationalism and Romanticism; The Era of National Insurrections; The Time of "Organic Work"; Social and Political Transformation.
From: A Brief History of Poland, a 1994 posting by the AngloPol Corporation
Part 8
1,240 words
Attempts at Reform, Enlightenment & Fall of the State - 1764-Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski elected King of Poland; Catherine II of Russia fears reborn Poland-Lithuania; for fear of a reborn Republic; accepts by Prussia's proposition for the 1772 partial partition of Poland; Polish society comes out of its lethargy, makes progress which culminates in the adoption of a Constitution on May 3, 1971; Russian troops enter Poland, defeat Polish Army, second incremental partition follows; 1994 Kosciuszko insurrection in effort to regain liberty, put down by Prussia and Russia is followed by Third Partition.
Part 9
1,825 words
The 19th Century-- Polish Wars and Uprisings - Partitions; Efforts to regain independence; Development of industry; Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon; 1815-Kingdom of Poland, tied with Russia, created by Congress of Vienna; Failed uprising of November 1830, sends 10,000 leaders into exile; Situation of peasantry-main social problem; January 1863 uprising thwarted by the Russian Army; Positivism promotes education and economic development; At turn rise of modern political parties.
Extended excerpts from Neal Ascherson's 1988 The Struggles for Poland

posted by Zbigniew Halat
Part 4
34,770 words
76 visuals
Poland 1795 - 1945 - The Third Partition; the Grand Duchy of Warsaw; the November Rising of 1830; the 'Great Emigration'; the fiasco of 1846; the January Rising; the Romantic tradition vs. "organic Work;" Poland Resurrected: 1900-1921; World War II; the Warsaw Rising. Also: texts of the Treaty of Nonaggression Between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of August 23, 1939; and of the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty of September 28, 1939; partial transcript of Judge Parker oration at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials.
From The Rise and Fall of Communist Nations 1917-1994 lecture notes by Prof. A. Cienciala, Univ. of Kansas Chapter I Appendix
1,440 words
Non-Russian Nationalities of the Russian Empire - Russian Poland and the Poles; The Jews
From the 1917: Political History of Poland by E.H. Lewinski-Corwin Chapter 15
9,450 words
The Three Partitions - The First Partition; End of the Bar Confederacy; The Diet of 1773 and the Treaty of Cession; The First State Board of Education in Europe; The Renaissance in Art and Science; The Reform Party; The Four Years' Diet 1788-1792; The Alliance with Prussia; The Constitution of May 3, 1791; Foreign Hostility to the New Constitution; Confederacy of Targowica; Second Partition of Poland, 1793; The Last Diet; Rising of Kosciuszko, 1794; The Third Partition of Poland, 1795.
Chapter 16
8,710 words
Napoleon and the Duchy of Warsaw - The Attitude of England and France toward the Polish; The Post Partition Regime in Poland; Hopes and Plans of the Polish Patriots; The Polish Legions; The Pro-Russian Turn in Polish Politics & Czartoryski's Plans; Defeat of Prussia and Napoleon's Promises to Poland; Treaty of Tilsit, 1807; Duchy of Poland 1807-15; The Economic Problems; The War with Austria and the Conquest of Galicia, 1809; Franco-Prussian War; Romantic literature promoted image of a heroic fighter for freedom End of the Duchy of Warsaw
Chapter 17
6,745 words
The Congress of Vienna and the Kingdom of Poland - The Fifth Partition of Poland; The Republic of Cracow; Grand Duchy of Posen; Galicia; The Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland; The Reaction; Secret Patriotic Societies; Persecutions in Lithuania; Trial of Members of the Polish National Patriotic Society; The Coronation of Nicholas I at Warsaw ; The Outbreak of the Uprising [1830] .
Chapter 18
9,580 words
The War with Russia and the Aftermath - Causes of the Polish Failure; The Uprising Turns into a Regular War; The Deposition of Tsar Nicholas; The Dictatorship of Skrzynecki; The Close of War; The Immediate Consequences of War; The Reflection in Literature of the National Tragedy; The Further Consequences of the Polish War with Russia; Revolutionary Activities; The End of the Cracow Republic and the Slaughter of the Galician Gentry; The Year 1848
Chapter 19
14,155 words
The Uprising of 1863 and the Era of Positivism - Shattering of Hope by Tsar Alexander II;Political Demonstrations; Wielopolski's Administration; Rising of the Revolutionary Tide; Short lived Polish Home Rule; Revolution of 1863; The End of the War; Vengenance of the Russian Government; The Lot of Lithuania; Censorship; Era of Positivism and its Reflection in Literature; Social and Economic Changes following the collapse of the Revolution; Socialism and the People Party; Brutality of the Prussian Regime; Galician Home Rule; Ruthenian Problem
Chapter 20
6,260 words
Constitutional Russia and the Poles - The Russo- Japanese War and the Political Awakening of Russia; The Severity of the Russian Rule; The Suppression of Polish Educational Activities; The Attitude of the Duma toward the Poles; Polish Representation in the Duma; The Jewish Problem
Chapter 21
11,290 words
The Polish Question and the Great War - The Re-opening of the Polish Question; The Polish Military Preparedness; The Supreme National Committee; The Manifesto of Grand Duke Nicholas; The Growth of the Polish Legions; The International Status of the Polish Question; Russian Rule During the War; The Fall of Warsaw and the Dubious Policy of the Central Empires; Polish self-help during the War; The Heroism of the Polish Legions; Joseph Pilsudski and the Forcing of the Polish Issue; The Proclaimination of Poland's Independence Nov 5, 1916; The Provisional Polish Government; The Solution of the Polish Question
From the 1914 History of Austro-Hungary and Poland by Steed. Phillips and Hannay Chapter XXVI
4,785 words
Russian Ascendancy - 17th century foreign intrigue and bribery, royal elections, the szlachta, liberum veto and magnates. Báthory, the Vasas, Wisniowiecki, Sobieski, the Saxons and Poniatowski. Russian minster Repenin vs patriotic bishops. Confederation of Bar. First Partition
Chapter XXVII
1,890 words
Prussian Intervention - The four years' Diet if 1788, Stanislaw Malachowski, Hugo Kollontaj and Ignaty Potocki & the Constitution of May 3rd, Catherine the Great, Felix Potocki, Severin Rzewuski and Xavier Branicki & the Confederation of Targowice, the Polish-Russian war of 1792 and Second Partition; the Kosciuszko Uprising of 1795 and the Third Partition. Also Napoleon and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw.
Chapter XXVIII
2,635 words
The Congress Kingdom - The 1815 Congreess of Vienna, establishment of the Congress Kingdom of Poland with its own Constitution, the Tsar as King & a partially elected Diet. The Uprising of 1830, its suppression and the reduction of the Kingdom to a Russian province, the Uprising of 1863 and its crushing.
From the 2004 History of Poland posting by the Polish Embassy in Ljubljana Part 3
1,735 words
Part 3 - Union of Lublin, Creation of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth - 1569; Electing the King - 1573; Wars with Russia, Sweden, the Ottoman Empire and the Dnieper Cossacks; Sobieski's Relief of Vienna - 1683; The First Partition - 1772
Part 4
1,775 words
Part 4 - May 3rd Constitution (1791); Kosciuszko Insurrection (1794); Grand Duchy of Warsaw 1807 - Napoleonic Wars; The November Uprising (1830); January Uprising (1863)
From the 1997 The History of Poland posting by Mieczyslaw Kasprzyk Part 3
1,300 words
Decline and Partition - The Partition of 1772; National revival in 1773; The new Constitution of 1791; Betrayal by the Confederation of Targowica; 1793 - Russia and Prussia signed the Second Partition Treaty; 1794 - Insurrection led by Kosciuszko; 1795 - the Third Partition wipes Poland off the map.
Part 4
2,315 words
Revolution and Rebirth - Napoleonic Poland; The Duchy of Warsaw; The "Congress Kingdom"; The "Great Emigration"; "For Your Freedom and Ours"; The "January Uprising" of 1863; The First World War - 1914-1918
A brief history of Poland in the last 200 years. Posted by Lukasz Bielecki in 2001 4,290 words Introduction with five excellent historical maps (960 words).
Also, a page of historical notes and a map for each of eight specific listed regions (ca. 400 words each)
Poland, partitions of.
330 words A brief retelling of basic facts in article from Columbia Encyclopedia
The Division of Poland, 1772, 1793, 1795
980 words Excerpts from the Memoirs of Frederick II of Prussia and the Letters of Maria Theresa of Austria and Catherine II of Russia
The Second Partition of Poland: 1793
545 words A description of the events that led and followed Poland's Second Partition. Also a map identifying the lands lost to Poland.
   Biographical links
   Leaders: civil, military, etc.    Others: artists, scientists, etc.
Stanislaw II Augustus Poniatowski (1732 - 1798), King and Reformer
Tadeusz Kościuszko (1746 - 1817), Hero and General
Kazimierz Pułaski (1747 - 1779), General and Hero, "Father of American Cavalry"
Jan Henryk Dąbrowski (1755 - 1818), General and Exile Leader
Józef Poniatowski (1763 - 1813), Patriot, Statesman, General
Marie Walewska (1786 - 1817), Noblewoman and Mistress of Napoleon Bonaparte
Adam Mickiewicz (1798 - 1855), Poet and Patriot
Emilia Plater (1806 - 1831), Polish commander during the November Uprising
Juliusz Słowacki (1809 - 1849), Poet and Playwright
Fryderyk Chopin (1810 - 1849), Composer
Stanisław Moniuszko (1819 - 1872), Composer
Romuald Traugutt (1825 - 1864), Political and Military Commander of the uprising of 1863
Jan Matejko (1838 - 1893), Painter and Patriot
Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846 - 1919), Author & Nobelist
Jozef Babiński (1857 - 1932), French-Polish Neurologist
Joseph Conrad (1857 - 1924), Novelist
Ignacy Paderewski (1860 - 1941), Pianist and Prime Minister
Gabriel Narutowicz (1865 - 1922), First Elected President of the Republic of Poland
Ignacy Moscicki (1867 - 1946), Chemist and President of Poland
Maria Sklodowska Curie (1867 - 1934), Discoverer of Radioactivity, Nobelist
Józef Piłsudski (1867 - 1935), Polical Revolutionary; Head of State
Władysław Reymont (1868 - 1925), Author and Nobelist
Stanisław Wojciechowski (1869 - 1953), President of Poland
Rosa Luxemburg (1871 - 1919), Political Theorists and Marxist
Henryk Arctowski (1871 - 1958), Geologist, explored Antarctica
Tomasz Arciszewski (1877 - 1955), Prime Minister of Poland
Guillaume Apollinaire (1880 - 1918), Poet and Playwright
Władysław Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881 - 1943), General and Prime Minister of Poland
Karol Szymanowski (1882 - 1937), Composer
Kazimierz Puzak (1883 - 1950), Politician
Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz (1885 - 1939), Painter and Writer
Richard Boleslawski (1889 - 1937), Film Director
Władysław Anders (1892 - 1970), W W II General and Hero
Stefan Bronisław Starzyński (1893 - c. 1943), Politician, Economist, and President of Warsaw
Tadeusz Komorowski (1895 - 1966), Commander of the Warsaw Uprising during W W II
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